Ostrom’s design principles
For successful common-pool resource governance,
- Clearly defined boundaries should be in place.
- Rules in use are well matched to local needs and conditions.
- Individuals affected by these rules can usually participate in modifying the rules.
- The right of community members to devise their own rules is respected by external authorities.
- A system for self-monitoring members’ behavior has been established.
- A graduated system of sanctions is available.
- Community members have access to low-cost conflict-resolution mechanisms.
- Nested enterprises–that is, appropriation, provision, monitoring and sanctioning, conflict resolution, and other governance activities–are organized in a nested structure with multiple layers of activities.