A open-source distributed Revision control system. It quickly becomes the most popular revision control system among developers. It is fast and has many advanced features. But, I think the popularity is largely thanks to GitHub, which is a web-based software development hosting system based on git. It is somewhat notorious with its unfriendliness1

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People who say “teaching is the best way to learn” have never experienced the seat-of-your-pants terror of trying to merge unrelated histories during an intro to Git workshop. -