One way to think about novelty is Combinatorial novelty. In many cases, something is novel because it creates new combinations of existing things.
In Artificial intelligence/Machine learning, novelty(-seeking) is sometimes a guiding principle for the agent. Boult2021towards attempts to formalize the notion of novelty in this context.
Askin2017what and O’Toole2022novelty studies how novelty and popularity correlates.