Segregation may be exacerbated by strong Inequality. Invisible borders can be created due to segregation. Robert Sampson showed that racial segregation is stronger than class segregation (Wang2018urban).

Athey2020segregation suggests a measure called Experienced isolation, which “captures individuals’ exposure to diverse others in the places they visit over the course of their days.” They followed up with large-scale GPS data in Athey2021estimating.

Brown2021measurement studies the partisan sorting using Voting data.

USC researchers created “Segregation index”: